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Manufacturing Technology of Surfactants, Washing Powders, Optical Brighteners and Chelating Agents with Formulations

Manufacturing Technology of Surfactants, Washing Powders, Optical Brighteners and Chelating Agents with Formulations
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Price: Rs. 1,275.00
Availability: In Stock
ISBN Number: 9789380772929
Writer: Dr. Himadri Panda
Publisher: ENGINEERS INDIA RESEARCH INSTT.
Average Rating: Not Rated

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The book Manufacturing Technology of Surfactants, Washing Powders, Optical Brighteners and Chelating Agents with Formulations covers Surfactants and their applications, Anionic Surfactants, Synthesis and Foaming Properties of New Anionic Surfactants, Sodium Dodecyl Isosorbide Sulfates, Nonionic Surfactants,Cationic and Amphoteric Surfactants, Inorganic Detergent Builders, Sequestrants and Chelating Agents, Bleaching Agents and Bleaching Acelerators, Optical Brighteners, Detergent Enzymes,  Principles of Enzyme Analysis,Toxicology, Project Profile on Liquid Detergent, Project Profile on Detergent Powder and Cake,  Composition of Soap and Detergent, Formula for Detergent cake and Powder, Formulation for Dish Washing Liquid Detergent, Formulation for Floor Cleaner,  Formulation for Nerol Soap, Formulation of Detergent Cake, Formulations for Bathing Soap and Herbal Soap, Formulations of Herbal Soaps Perfumes, Hand Wash (High Foaming and Fragrance) Formulations of Liquid Hand Soap, Hand Washing Detergent Powder, Laundry and Dry Cleaners, Liquid Soap and Detergent, Manufacture of Detergent Powder with Frmulation, Manufacture of Glass Cleaner , Perfumes for Soap, Detergent and Agarbatti, Toilet Bowl Cleaner and hand Dishwasher Liquid, Toilet Soap Cake, Washing Powder and Washing Soap.

SURFACTANTS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS

  • Some example of surfactant applications in the petroleum industry
  • Surfactants and their solutions
  • Surfactant classifications
  • Illustration of a Gemini surfactant
  • Phase behaviour
  • Organization of surfactant molecules in a micelle
  • Some common CMC methods
  • Surfactant adsorption and surface properties
  • Approximate surfactant HLB values
  • Analysis for surfactants
  • Typical methods of surfactant analysis
  • Detergency and the displacement of dirt and oil
  • Ore flotation
  • Surfactants and detergency
  • Surfactant stabilized dispersions
  • Foams and froths
  • Some possible flow regimes corresponding to the use of air, mist, foam or liquid as a drilling fluid
  • Micro foams (colloidal gas aphrons)
  • Emulsions
  • Other surfactant applications
  • Surfactants in biological systems
  • Surfactants in health and personal care products 
  • Sufactants in foods
  • Surfactants in crop protection
  • Surfactant toxicity and persistence
  • Some possible biodegradative pathways for linear alcohol ethoxylate surfactant

ANIONIC SURFACTANTS

  • Soaps and Other Carboxylates
  • Selection of different acids according to soap use 
  • Cations
  • Suffonation and sulfatation
  • Sulfonation mechanisms
  • Sulfatation Mechanisms
  • Sulfates
  • Alkyl Sulfate (or better Alkyl Ester Sulfate)
  • Alkyl Ether Sulfates (or better Alkyl Ethoxy Ester Sulfate)
  • Sulfated Alkanolamides
  • Glyceride sulfates and other sulfates
  • Sulfonates
  • A bit of history about petroleum sulfonates
  • Alkyl aromatic structures found in lube oil vacuum cuts
  • Dodecyl benzene sulfonate and synthetic detergents
  • Short tail alkyl benzene sulfonates-hydrotropes
  • Typical Detergent Formulations
  • Alpha olefin sulfonates
  • Lignosulfonates
  • Sulfo carboxylic compounds 
  • Other anionic surfactants
  • Orano phosphored surfactants
  • Sarcosides or alcyl amino acids

SYNTHESIS AND FOAMING PROPERTIES OF NEW ANIONIC SURFACTANTS SODIUM DODECYL ISOSORBIDE SULFATES

  • Experimental
  • Chemicals and general methods
  • The sodium dodecylisosorbide sulfate surfactants under study
  • Synthesis and purification of the compounds
  • Sodium dodecylisosorbide sulfates a and b 
  • Sodium diethoxylated dodecyl sulfate (SLE2S)
  • Foaming properties
  • Modified Bikerman's test
  • Results and discussion
  • Synthesis of the 5-O-dodecyl isosorbide
  • sulfate a and 2-0-dodecyl isosorbide sulfate b.
  • Synthetic path to the sulfated dodecylisosorbide derivatives a and b
  • Kraft temperature and CMC of dodecyl isosobide sulfates compared to SDS and SLE2S
  • Kraft temperatures, critical micelle concentrations (cmc) and ionization degrees obtained by conductimetry for the isosorbide derivatives a and b, SDS and SLE2S
  • Spatial conformation of 5-0 dodecyl isosorbide
  • sulfate a (top) and 2-0-dodecyl isosorbide sulfate b (bottom) after geometry optimization (B3LYP/TZVP)
  • Conductivity as a function of concentration for 5-0-dodecyl isosorbide sulfate a (circle), SDS (triangle) and SLE2S (square) at 25 degree Centigrade
  • Evolution of the foam height with time during a modified Bikerman's test
  • Foaming properties of 5-0 dodecyl isosorbide sulfate a compared to SDS and SLE2S
  • Evolution of the transmitted and backscattered lights with time along the  sample height
  • Data that can be  extracted from the transmitted light signal of the turbiscan
  • Quantitative data for the foams generated by solutions of 5-0 dodecyl isosorbide sulfate
  • Foamability and foam stability at three cmc
  • Foamability
  • Evolution with time of the backscattered light at the bottom of the foam for 5-0 dodecyl isosorbide sulfate
  • Evolutions of initial foam height Ho with surfactant concentration for 5-0 dodecyl isosorbide sulfate
  • Foam stability
  • Effect of surfactant concentration on foaming properties
  • Evolutions of half life time 11/2 with surfactant concentration for 5-0 dodecyl isosorbide sulfate 
  • Conclusion

NONIONIC SURFACTANS

  • Types, Structures and Applications of Nonionic Surfactants
  • Ethoxylated Alcohols
  • Correlation of HLB Values & Application Range 
  • Ethylene oxide adduct distribution of narrow range ethoxylated alcohol
  • Ethoxylated Alkylphenols 
  • Ethoxylated Acids 
  • Fatty Acid Alkanolamides
  • Ethoxylated Alkanolamides
  • Esters of Polyhydroxy Compounds
  • Ethoxylated Esters
  • Ethylene Oxide/Popylene Oxide Copolymers (POE/POP)
  • Alkylpolyglucosides (APGs)
  • Amine Ethoxylates
  • Amine Oxides

CATIONIC AND AMPHOTERIC SURFACTANTS

  • Types, Structures and Applications of Cationic Surfactants
  • Structures of important QAC Types 
  • Types, Structures and Applications of Amphoteric Surfactants
  • Typical Formulations with Cationic Surfactants
  • Fabric Softeners
  • Structures of Important Types of Amphoteric Surfactants
  • Disinfecting Cleaners 
  • Frame Formulations of Liquid Fabric Softeners 
  • Frame Formulations of Active Matter in dryer Sheets 
  • Frame Formulations of Liquid Detergents Containing wash Cycle softeners Based on a Nonionic/Cationic System
  • Frame Formulations of Various Antimicrobial Cleansers
  • Conditioning Hair Rinses 
  • Frame Formulation of an Antimicrobial Manual Dishwashing Liquid
  • Frame Formulations of Various Conditioning Hair Rinses 
  • Frame Formulationof a Conditioning Shampoo 
  • Formulations Containing Amphoteric Surfactants
  • Spectroscopic methods 
  • Frame Formulation of a Baby Shampoo
  • Frame Formulation of a Shower Gel 
  • Infrared Spectroscopy
  • Frame Formulation of a Dishwashing Liquid 
  • Characteristic IR Absorption Bands of QACs and Related Substances
  • Cationic Surfactants
  • Amphoteric Surfactants
  • Nuclear Magnetic 
  • Resonance
  • Spectroscopy
  • Cationic Surfactants
  • Amphoteric Surfactants
  • Mass Spectrometry
  • Cationic Surfactants 
  • Amphoteric Surfactans

INORGANIC DETERGENT BUILDERS

  • Carbonates and hydrogen carbonates
  • Sodium Carbonate and Sodium Sesquicarbonate
  • Identification and Detection of Carbonates 
  • Quantitative Carbonate Determination 
  • Determination of sodium carbonate by carbon dioxide evolution method 
  • Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate
  • Identification and Detection of Hydrogen Carbonates
  • Potassium Carbonate 
  • Identification and Detection of Potassium carbonate 
  • Determination of Potassium
  • Determination of potassium content by atomic absorption spectrometry
  • Phosphate
  • Identification and Detection of Phosphates
  • Quantitative Determination of Orthophosphate
  • Total Phosphate and Total Phosphorus
  • Determination of total phosphorus content by atomic emission sectrometry

SEQUESTRANTS AND CHELATING AGENTS

  • Analysis of monomeric types
  • Aminopolycarboxylates and Aminopolyphosphonates
  • Common Types of Aminopolycarboxylates
  • Common Types of Aminopolyphosphonates
  • Monomeric Polycarboxylic Acids with Sequestering Abilities
  • Monomeric Polycarboxylic Acids
  • Polymeric sequestering agents
  • Common Polymeric Sequestering Agents
  • Analysis

BLEACHING AGENTS AND BLEACHING ACCELERATORS

  • Bleaching Systems in Detergents 
  • Table typical compositions of the bleach system of Powder formulations in Western Europe 
  • N.N.NV.NV-tetraacetylethylenediamine (TAED)
  • Nonanoyioxybenzene sulfonate (NOBS)
  • Nitriles 
  • Pentaacetylglucose 
  • Tetraacetylglycoluril
  • Diacetyldioxohexahydrotriazine (DADHT)
  • Reaction Mechanisms
  • MnTACN
  • Reaction mechanism of perborate
  • Stability of bleaching agents 
  • Reaction mechanism of perhydrolysis
  • General 
  • Analysis of persalts
  • Perborate and Percarbonate
  • Sodium perborate
  • Other Persalts
  • Analysis of bleach activators 
  • H.N.NVNV-Tetraacetylethylenediamine (TAED)
  • N.N.NV.NV tetraacetylethylenediamine (TAED)
  • Nonanoyloxybenzenesulfonate
  • Perhydrolysis of NOBS
  • Nonanoyloxybenzene sulfonate (NOBS)
  • Phthalimidoperoxycaproic acid (PAP)
  • Others
  • Nitriles
  • Nitiles
  • Perhydrolyis of nitriles
  • Analysis of bleach catalysts
  • Structure
  • Application Fields
  • Identification and Quantification
  • Other bleaching agents
  • Hydrogen Peroxide
  • Sodium Hypochlorite
  • Isocyanurates and Cyanuric Acid 
  • Determination of peroxycarboxylic acids in the presence of hydrogen peroxide
  • Titrimetric Methods 
  • Gas Liquid Chromatographic Methods 
  • Spectrophotometric Methods
  • Oxidation reaction of ABTS
  • Liquid Chromatographic Methods
  • Electroanalysis 

OPTICAL BRIGHTENERS 

  • Definition Optical Brighteners 
  • Uvitex OB Absorption and Fluorescence Emission Curves 
  • The processes involved in light absorption and fluorescence by optical brighteners 
  • Energy Diagram of Optical Brighteners and Transitions 
  • Types and Properties of Optical Brighteners in Laundry Detergents 
  • DSBP type FWA
  • Structures of diaminostibene brighteners 
  • Brighteners for synthetic fibers and wool 
  • Pigments used as colorants in detergents
  • Anionic water soluble dyes preferably used in liquid detergents 
  • Brightening colors in detergents 
  • Extraction system with molecular porous regenerated cellulose (pore size 800-100 Da) in a 100-times large water bath
  • The chemistry of optical brighteners 
  • Chemical Properties of Optical Brighteners 
  • Fluorescence the Effect of Optical Brighteners 
  • Problem due to isomerization
  • Methods of determination
  • Precautions for Analysis
  • Analysis of Brightening Colors 
  • Sample Preparation Techniques
  • Detection Methods
  • Analytical Separation Techniques
  • Identification of Optical Brighteners
  • Quantitative Determination of Optical Brighteners
  • Conclusion

DETERGENT ENZYMES

  • Compositions of an enzyme detergent
  • Performance of enzymes in detergents
  • Alkaline Protease
  • Alkaline Cellulase
  • Alkaline Amylase
  • Materials
  • Alkaline Protease
  • Alkaline Cellulase
  • Alkaline Amylase
  • Methods
  • Alkaline Protease
  • Purification of Alkaline Protesses
  • Cloning and Sequencing of Gene for Alkaline Proteases
  • Alkaline Cellulase
  • Pufication of Alkaline Cellulases
  • Alkaline Amylase
  • Purification of Alkaline Amylases
  • Cloning Genes Encoding Alkaline Amylases

PRINCIPLES OF ENZYME ANALYSIS

  • Qualitative analysis of enzyme classes and types 
  • Principles of Qualitative Enzyme Analysis
  • Process of enzyme analysis in detergents 
  • Amylases
  • Cellulases
  • Lipases
  • Proteases
  • Process of Enzyme identification with protease containing products
  • Quantitative analysis of enzymes
  • Amylase
  • Cellulase
  • Release of Reducing Sugars
  • Decrease in Viscosity 
  • Lipase Analysis
  • Chromogenic Substrates
  • Protease Analysis
  • Fluorigenic Substrates

TOXICOLOGY

  • Detergent Ingredients
  • Surfactants
  • Builders
  • Bleach Active Compounds
  • Auxiliary Agents
  • Fluorescent Whitening Agents
  • Finished Detergents
  • Conclusions

PROJECT PROFILE ON LIQUID DETERGENT

  • Introduction
  • Market Potential
  • Basis and presumptions
  • Implementation schedule
  • Technical aspects
  • Process of Manufacturing
  • Quality Specification
  • Production Capacity per annum
  • Motive Power 3 Phase
  • Total apital investments
  • Means of finance
  • Financial aspects 
  • Fixed capital
  • Machinery and Equipment
  • Working capital 
  • Other expenses per month 
  • Total working capital per month 
  • Cost of production per annum
  • Turnover per year
  • Fixed cost per year 
  • Profit analysis 
  • Machinery suppliers
  • Raw material suppliers 

PROJECT PROFILE ON DETERGENT POWDER AND CAKE 

  • Introduction
  • Market Potential
  • Basis and presumptions
  • Implementation schedule
  • Technical Aspects 
  • Formulation of Detergent Bars/Cakes
  • Process Description
  • Quality Control and Standards
  • Production Capaity
  • Fixed Capital
  • Working Capital
  • Raw Material 
  • Total Capital Investment
  • Financial Analysis
  • Net Profit
  • Profit on turnover
  • Total Turnover per year 
  • Rate of Return on Total Capital Investment
  • Break even point 
  • Fixed Cost 

COMPOSITION OF SOAP AND DETERGENT

  • Composition of Household Soaps
  • Plant Economics of Soap and Detergent
  • Plant and Machinery 
  • Fixed Capital 
  • Raw Materials
  • Total Working Capital/Month
  • Total Capital Investment

FORMULA FOR DETERGENT CAKE AND POWDER

  • Detergent Cake Formula and its Manufacture
  • Plant Economics
  • Plant and Machinery 
  • Fixed Capital
  • Raw Materials
  • Total Working Capital Month
  • Total Capital Investment
  • Turn Over/Annum

FORMULATION FOR DISH WASHING LIQUID DETERGENT

  • Formulations
  • 20% Liquid Detergent Paste
  • Plant Economics of dish washing liquid detergent sles based
  • Plant and Machinery
  • Fixed Capital
  • Raw materials
  • Total Working Capital/Month
  • Total Capital Investment
  • Turn Over/Annum

FORMULATION FOR FLOOR CLEANER

  • Formulations of floor and bath room cleaners
  • Floor and Bathroom Cleaner
  • Plant Economics of Floor Cleaner (Liquid Antistatic Type)
  • Plant and Machinery
  • Fixed Capital
  • Raw materials 
  • Total Working Capital /Month
  • Total Over/Annum 

FORMULATION FOR NEROL SOAP

  • Formulation of Nerol Soap
  • Plant Economics of Nerol Soap
  • Plant and Machinery
  • Fixed Capital
  • Raw materials
  • Total Working Capital/Month
  • Total Capital Investment
  • Turn Over/Annum

FORMULATION OF DETERGENT CAKE

  • Formulation of Detergent Cake (Vim Type)
  • Plant economics of detergent cake (vim type)
  • Plant and Machinery
  • Fixed Capital
  • Raw materials
  • Total Working Capital/Month
  • Total Capital Investment
  • Turn Over/Annum

FORMULATIONS FOR BATHING SOAP AND HERBAL SOAP 

  • Formulation for Bath soaps by Cold Process 
  • White Bath Soap 
  • Process
  • Rose Soap
  • Fanoy Soap
  • Onental Soap
  • Himalayan Bouquet Soap
  • Plant Economics of Bath Soap (Various Types)
  • Plant and Machinery
  • Fixed Capital
  • Raw materials
  • Total Working Capital/Month
  • Total Capital Investment
  • Turn Over/Annum

FORMULATIONS OF HERBAL SOAPS PERFUMES

  • Manufacture of Bath Soap by Remelting Process
  • Life boy type soap
  • Transparent soap
  • Formulations of herbal soaps perfumes
  • Formulation No. 1
  • Formulation No. 2
  • Process of Soapmaking 
  • Raw  Materials 
  • Perfumes for Herbal Soaps
  • Soap Perfumery 
  • Honey Soap
  • Orange Soap
  • Lemon Soap
  • Rose Soap
  • Elder flower Soap
  • Transparent Glycerine Soap
  • Perfume Formulation
  • Plant economics of bath soap manufacturing 
  • Plant and Machinery
  • Fixed Capital
  • Raw materials
  • Total Working Capital/Month
  • Total Capital Investment
  • Turn Over/Annum

HAND WASH (HIGH FOAMING AND FRAGRANCE) FORMULATIONS OF LIQUID HAND SOAP

  • Formulation
  • Formulation of Liquid hand wash 
  • Plant Economics of hand wash (high foaming and fragrance)
  • Plant and Machinery
  • Fixed Capital
  • Raw materials
  • Total Working Capital/Month
  • Total Capital Investment
  • Turn Over/Annum

HAND WASHING DETERGENT POWDER

  • Formulation of detergent powder (low cost)
  • Formulation of detergent powder (medium cost)
  • Plant economics of hand washing detergent powder
  • Plant and Machinery
  • Fixed Capital
  • Raw materials
  • Total Working Capital/Month
  • Total Capital Investment
  • Turn Over/Annum

LAUNDRY AND DRY CLEANERS

  • Process of Dry Cleaning 
  • Wet cleaning 
  • Laundering 
  • Professional Cleaning  Steps
  • Tips to Help You Get the  Most from Your 
  • Professional Cleaner 
  • Plant economics of laundry and dry cleaning 
  • Plant and Machinery
  • Fixed Capital
  • Raw materials
  • Total Working Capital/Month
  • Total Capital Investment
  • Turn Over/Annum

LIQUID SOAP AND DETERGENT

  • Formulations of Soaps
  • Formulae of Pine Oil hand Soap
  • Plant Economics of Liquid Soap and Liquid Detergent
  • Plant and Machinery
  • Fixed Capital
  • Raw materials
  • Total Working Capital/Month
  • Total Capital Investment
  • Turn Over/Annum

MANUFACTURE OF DETERGENT POWDER WITH FORMULATION

  • Quantitative Requirement
  • Plant Economics of Detergent Powder (Surf Excel and Wheel Type)
  • Plant and Machinery
  • Fixed Capital
  • Raw materials
  • Total Working Capital/Month
  • Total Capital Investment
  • Turn Over/Annum

MANUFACTURE OF GLASS CLEANER 

  • Manufacturing Process of Cleaner (Colin Type)
  • Colin Type Cleaner (Formulation Process)
  • Process
  • Process flow sheet
  • Plant economics of cleaner (colin type)
  • Plant and Machinery
  • Fixed Capital
  • Raw materials
  • Total Working Capital/Month
  • Total Capital Investment
  • Turn Over/Annum

PERFUMES FOR SOAP DETERGENT AND AGARBATTI

  • Plant Economics (yara yara)
  • Plant and Machinery
  • Fixed Capital
  • Raw materials
  • Total Working Capital/Month
  • Total Capital Investment
  • Turn Over/Annum

TOILET BOWL CLEANER AND HAND DISHWASHER LIQUID

  • Formulation of acid toilet bowl cleaner
  • Plant economics of toilet bowl cleaner and hand dishwasher liquid
  • Plant and Machinery
  • Fixed Capital
  • Raw materials
  • Total Working Capital/Month
  • Total Capital Investment
  • Turn Over/Annum

TOILET SOAP CAKE

  • Formulation for Bath Soaps (Toilet Soap) by Cold Process
  • White Soap
  • Process
  • Plant Economics of toilet soap (cake form)
  • Plant and Machinery
  • Fixed Capital
  • Raw materials
  • Total Working Capital/Month
  • Total Capital Investment
  • Turn Over/Annum

WASHING POWDER AND WASHING SOAP

  • Manufacture of Detergent Cake 
  • Process 1 Quantitative Requirement
  • Composition of household soaps
  • Plant economics of washing powder and washing soap
  • Plant and Machinery
  • Fixed Capital
  • Raw materials
  • Total Working Capital/Month
  • Total Capital Investment
  • Turn Over/Annum
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