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MODERN TECHNOLOGY OF FRESH PROCESSED MEAT AND COATED POULTRY PRODUCTS WITH MANUFACTURING OF DRIED MEAT EMULSIONS AND CURING OF POULTRY PRODUCTS

MODERN TECHNOLOGY OF FRESH PROCESSED MEAT AND COATED POULTRY PRODUCTS WITH MANUFACTURING OF DRIED MEAT EMULSIONS AND CURING OF POULTRY PRODUCTS
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Price: Rs. 1,100.00
Availability: In Stock
ISBN Number: 9789380772684
Writer: EIRI Board
Publisher: ENGINEERS INDIA RESEARCH INSTT.
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The book Modern Technology of Fresh Processed Meat and Coated Poultry Products with Manufacturing of Dried Meat Emulsions and Curing of Poultry Products Emulsified Products, Muscle Proteins in Poultry Products, Occupational health Hazards among Meat Plant Workers, Mechanical Separation of Poultry Meat and its Use, Assurance of Quality and Quality process Control, Cleaning and Sanitation in Meat Plants, Poultry Feed, Commercial poultry Litter having Dried Citrus Peel, Manufacturing Process of Dried Meat Emulsions, Thermal Processing and Irradiation of Meat and Meat Products, Coated Poultry Products,  Marination, Cooking, and Curing of Poultry Products,  processing Water and Wastewater Treatment, Quality of Meat, Improving the Flavor of Poultry Meat, Chicken Nuggets/Asian small scale product(Fresh processed meat product, coarse mixture), Cured Chicken Meat Cuts, Precooked Cooked Products, Plant Economics of Buffalo Meat/Frozen meat with Slaughter House, Plant Economics of Chicken meat Processing Plant, Plant Economics of Chicken/Mutton (Sheep Meat) Processing, Plant Economics of Meat Chilling Frozen Meat, Plant Economics  of Oleoresins from Chilly, Plant Economics of Soy and Gluten  Based Mock. Meat.

 

 

MODERN TECHNOLOGY OF FRESH PROCESSED MEAT AND COATED POULTRY PRODUCTS WITH MANUFACTURING OF DRIED MEAT EMULSIONS AND CURING OF POULTRY PRODUCTS

PREFACE

Fresh Processed Meat comprises meat mixes composed of finely  comminuted, minced or sliced muscle meat, with varying quantities of animal fat adhering to the muscle meat or added separately. Flavouring is done by adding common salt and spices, curing is not practiced. In many products other non meat ingredients are added in smaller quantities for improvement of flavour and binding, in low cost versions larger quantities are added to extend the  existing volume. The characteristic of this group is that all meat and non meat ingredients are added fresh (raw), either  refrigerated or non-refrigerated. The heat treatment (frying, cooking) is only applied immediately prior to consumption to make the  products palatable. In many instances, the consumer cooks the products prior to serving and products are consumed hot. Most  of the fresh meat mixes are filled in casings, which defines such  products as sausages. If other portioning is customary, the products are known as burgers, patties, kebab, etc.

The chicken meat industry also developed new products, which contributed significantly to meeting the global increase in demand  for poultry meat. These can be compared to a few examples from the red meat and fish sector, e.g. breaded and fried meat slices of pork or mutton known as Escalope or Wiener Schnitzel and  in the fish sector as fish fingers. The characteristic of such products is the coating of meat surfaces with flour, fat/flour mixes and/or breadcrumbs etc. In the poultry sector, similar products include chicken nuggets (ground meat mix), chicken sticks or fingers (muscle strips) or chicken schnitzel (breast muscle slices).

After the meat or meat mix is portioned, each portion is predusted by applying a thin layer of dry flour on the meat surface. This  serves to firmly absorb the batter and the breading in the following steps of the processing. Battering consist of dipping the meat pieces in a semi liquid mixture of oil, eggs, water and spices, breaking is the coating with flour, fat/flour mixes and/or breadcrumbs. The final step in this process is heat treatment to stabilize the coatings on the meat surface. This short heat treatment in hot  fat/oil (approx + 175 C) as part of the processing must be seen as a pre treatment only and does not cook the product. The final heat treatment  is carried out by the consumer right before eating.

In large chicken industries, the above processes have been automated by using continuous processing lines. This industrial level processing mainly focuses on comminuted and reconstitued meat parts, in some cases mechanically deboned meat (MDM) is used for cost reduction. 

The book Modern Technology of Fresh Processed Meat and Coated Poultry Products with Manufacturing of Dried Meat Emulsions and Curing of Poultry products contains 24 chapter on various aspects, i.e. Emulsified Products, Muscle Proteins in Poultry Products, Occupational Health Hazards amongh Meat Plant Workers, Mechanical Separation of Poultry Meat and its Use, Assurance of Quality and Quality process Control, Cleaning and Sanitation in Meat Plants, Poultry Feed, Commercial Poultry  Litter Having Dried Citrus peel, Manufacturing Process of Dried Meat Emulsions, Thermal processing and Irradiation of Meat and Meat Products,  Coated Poultry Products, Marination, Cooking, and Curing of Poultry prodeucts, Processing Water and Waste water Treatment, Quality of Meat, Improving the Flavour of Poultry Meat, Chicken Nuggets/Asian small scale product (Fresh processed  meat product, coarse mixture), Cured Chicken Meat Cuts, Precooked Cooked Products, Plant Economics of Buffalow Meat/Frozen Meat with Slaughter House, Plant Economics of Chicken Meat Processing Plant, Plant Economics of Chicken/Mutton (Sheep Meat) Processing, Plant Economics of Meat Chilling Frozen Meat, Plant Economics of Oleoresins from (Chilly), Plant Economics of Soy and Gluten Based Mock Meat.

EMULSIFIED PRODUCTS 

  • Product categories
  • View inside a mixer/blender showing the mixing paddles
  • Raw materials
  • Raw material condition
  • Maximum Recommended Length of Storage of Different Specifies of Meat at Various Temperatures for the Preservation of Optimum Quality
  • Bowl chopper with rotating blades contained under the hooded cover at the rear of the bowl.
  • Fat Melting Ranges of Speciies that Might Be Incorporated into an Emulsion Product
  • Processing procedures
  • Processing defects (formed products)
  • Uncured Poultry Roll (Boneless Breast Fillets)
  • Processing phases
  • Cured Turkey Ham (Boneless Thigh Muscles)
  • Processing Procedures
  • Bowl chopper with rotating blades contained under the hooded cover at the rear of the bowl
  • Common Curred Meat Defects
  • Poultry Frankfurter/Bologna (Boneless Breast, Thighs, Drumstick MJeat, Mechanically Separated Poultry, Trimmings)

MUSCLE PROTEINS IN POULTRY PRODUCTS 

  • diagram illustrating how processing conditions and ingredients affect the functional properties of muscle proteins and the resulting quality attributes of finished poultry products
  • Protein composition of Poultry Skeletal Muscle
  • Organization of skeletal muscle structure 
  • Schematic diagram of the myosin molecule 
  • Salt concentration affects the water binding ability of raw turkey meat batters at pH 6.0
  • pH affects the water binding ability of raw turkey meat batters containing 0.5M NaCl.
  • pH affects the extractable protein content of turkey meat batters containing 0.5 MNaCL. Water binding was defined in this study as the ability of raw meat batter to hold  added water upon centrifugation.
  • Electron micrograph showing the protein film formed on the surface of fat dropets in a highly comminuted poultry meat batter 
  • Diagram illustrating the steps necessary to form a heat induced protein gel and subsequent quality of cooked poultry products
  • Electron micrograph of a cooked chicken meat batter made with 2.5% salt
  • Effect of cooking temperature on the ability of ground meat to hold water added after cooking

OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH HAZARDS AMONG MEAT PLANT WORKERS

  • Introduction
  • Injuries, Inflammation and Minor Cutaneous infections
  • Occupational Zoonoses Among Meat Plant Workers 

MECHANICAL SEPARATION OF POULTRY MEAT AND ITS USE 

  • Changes in labelling regulations 
  • Use of mature fowl in baby foods 
  • Kidney and reproductive organ removal 
  • Bone and calcium content 
  • Limitations on the use of mechanically separated poultry in products 
  • Cholesterol, protein, and fat 
  • Equipment
  • Example of machine for mechanical separation of poultry meat 
  • Example of product from a modified separation
  • process that can be labeled as ground chicken 
  • Types of mechanically separated poultry 
  • Mechanical separation of poultry meat 
  • Composition
  • Range of Composition  of Mechanically Separated Poultry from Different Sources
  • Functional properties 
  • Color and heme pigments
  • Flavor stability
  • Washing or surimi-like processing 
  • Moisture, Fat, Protein, and Collagen Content of Raw and Cooked Mechanically Deboned Chicken Meat that was washed with Selected Washing Solutions
  • Examples of food products made with mechanically separated poultry meat
  • Textural Profile Analysis values from Mechanically Deboned Chicken Meat that was washed in Tap Water, Sodium Phosphate Buffer Solution, NaHCO3 Solution or Nacl Solution

ASSURANCE OF QUALITY AND QUALITY PROCESS CONTROL

  • Quality systems
  • The quality manual
  • Inspection systems
  • Process control 
  • Current quality issues

CLEANING AND SANITATION IN MEAT PLANTS 

  • General 
  • Manual cleaning of working tables with brushes
  • Cleaning of wall with pressurized water care must be taken not to  contaminate equipment
  • Effect of detergents (surfactants): Decrease of surface tension of water droplets and impact angle (below), dirt particles are easier loosened and removed from surface.
  • Foam cleaning
  • Disinfection techniques
  • Uncleaned (rinsed only) Many bacterial colonies (white spots)
  • After chemical cleaning Reduced numbers of bacterial colonies
  • After cleaning and disinfection very few bacterial colonies remaining 
  • Effect of cleaning and disinfection on the number of bacteria image of impression plate samples taken from a meat container (plastic)
  • Disinfection of walls by using portable spray equipment for operator's protection gloves and facemask are recommended 
  • Disinfectants for the meat industry
  • Cleaning and disinfection plans

POULTRY FEED

  • Nutrient Requirements of Turkeys as Percentages or Units per Kilogram of Diet.
  • Nutrient Requirements of Broilers as Percentages or Units per Kilogram of Diet
  • Plasma 
  • Materials and Methods 
  • Nutrient Requirements of Leghorn-Type Laying Hens as Percentages or Units per Kilogram of Diet (90 percent dry matter)
  • Experimental treatments
  • Formula and nutrient analysis of diets on an as-is basis (%)
  • Feed manufacturing conditions of diets 
  • Results
  • Least squares means of broiler performance consuming plasma in dry feed 
  • Least squares means of body weight and survival
  • Materials and Methods 
  • Experimental treatments
  • Results
  • Formula and calculated analysis of diets on an as-is basis (%)
  • Feed manufacturing conditions of diets

COMMERCIAL POULTRY LITTER HAVING DRIED CITRUS PEEL

  • A bar graph plot of test results from an efficiancy study of different litter materials on broiler performance , illustrating the percent of birds with carcass Grade A rating and the percent of birds without  foot pad lesions or without breast blisters
  • A bar graph plot of data of foot pad scores from a poultry litter efficancy study
  • A bar graph plot of breast blister scores from the poultry litter efficacy study.
  • A plot of short term average bird weight and adjusted feed conversion data from an initial period of the litter material efficancy study.
  • Carcass Quality Results 
  • Feed Conversion Results 
  • Foot Pad Lesion Scores 
  • Performance Data for Birds at 16 Days of Age
  • Analyses of Soiled Poultry Litter
  • Ammonia Levels
  • Coliform Counts
  • Nutrient and Nitrogen
  • Analysis 

MANUFACTURING PROCESS OF DRIED MEAT EMULSIONS 

  • Operational Example 
  • A block diagram flow sheet illustrating the method of this method 
  • A diagrqammaticillustration of an apparatus which  may be used for forming the emulsion into a dried sheet product.
  • A comparative graph showing  the effect of pH adjustment on vanation of moisture content with drying time for beef emulsion prepared with 1% salt and 10% added water.
  • A comparative graph showing the effect of water and fat addition to beef emulsion adjusted to pH 7.0 with KOH and 1% added salt on fat retentionin the dried  product
  • Experimental Exakmples
  • Effect of pH and slat addition on final moisture content
  • Effect of pH on fat content of dehydrated beef 
  • Effect of amount of water added to beef emulsion at pH 7 on fat content of dehydrated  product andtexture of rehydrated meat

THERMAL PROCESSING AND IRRADIATION OF MEAT AND MEAT PRODUCTS

  • Introduction
  • Thermal Processing
  • Types of Thermal Processing
  • Irradiation
  • The currently accepted
  • irradiation doses by the PDA

COATED POULTRY PRODUCTS

  • Forming the product
  • Cut nuggets showing color and texture differences
  • Poultry Meat Content standards for certain Poultry Products 
  • Prepare formulation
  • Flow diagram of coated poultry nugget and/or patty production
  • Formax F.200 forming machine
  • Formax forming machine  mold plate
  • Formax F conveyor with Port fill
  • Formax F Conveyor with Poultry Plus
  • Nuggets in various shapes and colors
  • Formed chicken breast patties in two different shapes 
  • Drum breader 
  • Sprinkle applicator for predust
  • Batter application top submersion system
  • Batter application overflow system
  • Batter application on chicken system
  • Breader application
  • Breader application on battered chicken wings
  • Breader application Japanese bread crumbs
  • Diagram of an inline fryer 
  • Diagram of extracted protein fibers and gelation bonds formed during cooking 
  • Freezing and packaging 
  • Diagram of the oxidation of unsaturated fats

MARINATION, COOKING, AND CURING OF POULTRY PRODUCTS

  • Introduction
  • Marination
  • Broiler market, percentage of product sold
  • domestically as marinated, unmarinated or mixed 
  • Marination techniques
  • Vacuum blender used for mixing marinade and other ingredients with smaller particles of meat 
  • Vacuum tumbler (in unloading position showing internal paddies) used for mixing marinade and other ingredients with larger meat  particles or whole muscles
  • Injector showing conveyor belt full of whole breast muscles passing through injecting cabinet
  • Cooking 
  • Stein JSO-IV in line Oven
  • Stein GCO Spiral Oven
  • Stein TFF-II Fryer, with top raised 
  • Curing
  • Quality characteristics from meat curing reactions
  • Nitric oxide(NO) reaction pathway from fresh meat pigments to form curred meat pigments leading to the final cooked pigment form known as nitrosythemochrome
  • Reaction sequence from either sodium nitrate or sodium nitrite leading to the formation of nitric oxide (NO)
  • ALKAR batch oven with DDC computer controls for cooking and smoking of poultry products 
  • ALKAR inline continuous cook/chill system with flow through processing for frankfurters or wieners

PROCESSING  WATER AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT

  • Wastewater analytical measurements
  • Wastewater trteatment
  • Processing plant discharging into a municipal system (POTW, publicity owned treatment works)
  • Processing plant dischargeing to stream
  • Processing plant using land application
  • Average  Concentration of Contaminants in Broiler Processing Wastewater Biochemical

QUALITY OF MEAT

  • Sensory quality attributes
  • Evaluating food with the five senses
  • Sample presentations and preparation
  • Sensory evaluation laboratory floor plan
  • Specific sensory test formats
  • Other profiling methods 
  • Rating scales
  • Instrumental methods of analysis
  • Selected texture instrumental methods 
  • Warner Bratzler shearing device 
  • Warner Bratzler shear cell for an Instron UTM
  • Allow Kramer shear cell for an instron UTM
  • A typical texture profile analysis (TPA) curve pattern for chicken meat
  • Relationships between instrumental procedures and sensory panels for texture 
  • Diagram of scheme to sample individual cooked breast muscle for sensory and instrumental tests 
  • Instrumental Shear Values Corresponding to Sensory Tenderness Categories 
  • Descriptive Texture Attributes and Definitions Used to Evaluate Intact Broiler Muscle 
  • Spider web diagram of sensory evaluation of mechanically debonded broiler meat (MDBM ) and hand deboned fowl meat (HDFM)
  • A colorimeter being used to determine the numeric color value of a broiler breast fillet
  • Terms used for profiling the taste and Aroma of fresh and Reheated Chicken Meat

IMPROVING THE FLAVOR OF POULTRY MEAT 

  • Cooked Ham/Entire muscle pieces formed together
  • Chicken Meat Bails

PRECOOKED COOKED PRODUCTS 

  • Corned Chicken (traditional method, South America)

PLANT ECONOMICS OF BUFFALOW MEAT/FROZEN MEAN WITH SLAUGHTER HOUSE 

  • Plant & Machinery
  • Fixed Capital
  • Raw Materials
  • Total Working Capital/Month
  • Total Capital Investment
  • Turn Over/Annum

PLANT ECONOMICS OF CHICKEN MEAT PROCESSING PLANT  

  • Plant & Machinery
  • Fixed Capital
  • Raw Materials
  • Total Working Capital/Month
  • Total Capital Investment
  • Turn Over/Ann

PLANT ECONOMICS OF CHICKEN/MUTTON (SHEEP MEAT) PROCESSING 

  • Plant & Machinery
  • Fixed Capital
  • Raw Materials
  • Total Working Capital/Month
  • Total Capital Investment
  • Turn Over/Annum

PLANT ECONOMICS OF MEAT CHILLING FROZEN MEAT

  • Plant & Machinery
  • Fixed Capital
  • Raw Materials
  • Total Working Capital/Month
  • Total Capital Investment
  • Turn Over/Ann

PLANT ECONOMICS OF OLEORESINS FROM CHILLY 

  • Plant & Machinery
  • Fixed Capital
  • Raw Materials
  • Total Working Capital/Month
  • Total Capital Investment
  • Turn Over/Annum

PLANT ECONOMICS OF SOY AND GLUTEN BASED MOCK 

  • Plant & Machinery
  • Fixed Capital
  • Raw Materials
  • Total Working Capital/Month
  • Total Capital Investment
  • Turn Over/Annum
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