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TECHNOLOGY OF WATER AND PACKAGED DRINKING WATER

TECHNOLOGY OF WATER AND PACKAGED DRINKING WATER
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Price: Rs. 1,100.00
Availability: In Stock
ISBN Number: 9789380772110
Writer: EIRI Board
Publisher: ENGINEERS INDIA RESEARCH INSTT.
Average Rating: Not Rated

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Water is a chemical substance with the chemical formula H2O. A water molecule contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms connected by covalent bonds. Water is a liquid at ambient conditions, but it often co-exists on Earth with its solid state, ice, and gaseous state (water vapor or steam). Water also exists in a liquid crystal state near hydrophilic surfaces. Under nomenclature used to name chemical compounds, Dihydrogen monoxide is the scientific name for water, though it is almost never used. As the name implies, the mineral water is the purified water fortified with requisite amounts of minerals such as Barium, Iron, Manganese, etc. which can be absorbed by human body. It is either obtained from natural resources like spring and drilled wells or it is fortified artificially by blending and treating with mineral salts. The mineral water shall be manufactured and packed under hygienic conditions in properly washed and cleaned bottles in sterilised conditions.Unfortunately sufficient safe potable water is not available everywhere in the country, either harmful chemical substances are found in the layers of earth which enter into water or it may be contaminated due to pathogenic micro-organisms. If such water is consumed, the body suffers from water born diseases. Due to this, it has become imperative to process and bottle safe potable water for the mankind in prevailing conditions. The demand for purified water becomes more during summer season. Although few companies have already entered in the bottling of safe potable water and mineralised water, but still huge gap is there in between demand and supply at all metropolitan-cities and towns. The product is widely accepted in offices, restaurants, railway stations, airport, bus stands, hospitals and to some extent even in rich house-holds.So there is good scope for  establishing the units for processing and bottling plain and mineralised drinking water in different parts of the country.

This book comtains 34 chapters on various aspects on packaged drinking water and other related technilogies, i.e. Water for All, Water, Groundwater Mining, Groundwater Development in India, Freshwater Resources and Their Conjunctive Use, Technologies for Recycling of Waste Water, Recovery of Water from Domestic and Industrial Waste Water, Reverse Osmosis, Water/Effluent Treatment Plant in the Food Processing Industries, Recovery of Water From Non-Conventional Resources, Cooling Water System Management, Waste Water Use, Techniques for Water Conservation in Food and Beverage (F & B) Industry, Plastics Containers for Drinking Potable Water and Regulations, The Great Threat of Poor Quality of Counterfeiting Bottling Water, Water Treatment Using Ozone, Water Conservation by Optimizing Water Use, Non-Conventional Techniques to Remove Heavy Metals from Wastewater, Cooling Water Treatment, Role of Membrane Filtration for Industrial Water Treatment and Wastewater Reuse, Meeting Water Quality needs Through Multiple Technologies, Use of Ozone in Packaged Drinking Water Disinfection and Purification, How Safe is Bottled Water, Ozone – A Boon to Bottlers, Advances in Membrane Technology for Beverage Water Treatment, Application of Membrane Technology in Water Processing, Ozone - the 21st Century Disinfectant, Manufacturing Mineral Water i.e. Water Containing Sufficient/Required Quantity of Minerals which is Required to Human Bodies, Project Profile on Purified Bottled Water, Technology and Market Trend of Packaged Drinking Water, Mineral Water Plant/ Packaged Drinking Water Plant With ISI Lab and Certification, Mineral Water Plant, Project Profile on Mineral Water, The Use of Distillation Technology in the Bottled Water Industry.

Contents-cum-Index

Chapter 1
WATER FOR ALL

    Halving drinking water
    consumption


Chapter 2
WATER

    Institutions and water
    policy
    Water allocation systems
    Property rights systems
    and surface water
    allocation
    A “public utility” model for water allocation and pollution control
    Prices and surface water allocation
    Price impacts on water use
    China
    India
    Indonesia
    Coordinating groundwater extraction
    Conjunctive groundwater and surface water management
    Preserving water quality
    The Water Sellers
    Non-point pollution control options
    Policy issues in irrigated agriculture
    Irrigation in the 1990s and beyond
    Trends in irrigated area
    Crop prices and construction costs
    Efficient water use at the farm level
    Waterlogging, salinity and drainage
    Water quality management
    Small-scale water programmes
    Scarce water resources management
    Supporting action
    Irrigation and land degradation
    Irrigation: Good
    government and good management
    Good government and irrigation performance
    Legitimacy
    Accountability
    Competence
    Rule of law
    Water user associations and NGOs
    Self-financed operations
    The Philippines’ Bureaucratic reform
    Legal and financial status of the NIA
    A gradual approach
    Understanding farmers
    Future directions in water management policy
    The hidden treasure
    What is this groundwater?


Chapter 3
GROUNDWATER MINING

    Undesirable effects of overexploitation
    Benefits of groundwater exploitation
    Management of aquifers' utilization
    Alternatives to groundwater mining
    Artificial recharge of aquifers
    Reclamation and reuse of wastewater
    Desalination
    Weather modification
    Demand modification
    Conclusions


Chapter 4
GROUNDWATER DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA

    Introduction
    Groundwater Occurrence
    Water resources availability and demand
    Groundwater
    development
    Ground water rights
    Groundwater legislation
    Groundwater quality
    Future strategies of groundwater development
    Groundwater development in water logged areas
    Evaluation of deep aquifer systems
    Groundwater development in the eastern parts of the country
    Inter-basin water transfer
    Groundwater development in drought prone areas
    Groundwater-seawater interaction
    Artificial recharge
    Availability of funds
    Water quality monitoring
    Active participation of women
    Conclusions


Chapter 5
FRESHWATER RESOURCES AND THEIR CONJUNCTIVE USE

    Introduction
    The concept of conjunctive use
    Water storage
    Subsurface water storage
    Surface water storage
    Allocation of water releases
    Conjunctive use and irrigation development
    Research thrust and development
    Data base improvement
    Modelling technology
    Simulation models
    Optimization models
    Sustainability criteria
    Spatial analysis procedures
    Decision support systems
    Framework for implementation of conjunctive use R & D
    Institutional issues
    Financial issues
    Challenges for the future
    Rainfall/Runoff processes and modelling
    Groundwater management, monitoring and remediation
    Unsaturated zone
    Exchange with surface water and coupled flow
    Conflict resolution in water management
    Water resource management under climate change
    Concluding remarks
    A global perspective on water scarcity and poverty
    The issue
    Irrigation and poverty alleviation-past achievements
    Impact of water scarcity on the poor
    Emerging groundwater problem
    Marginal areas
    Challenge for poverty alleviation
    Focus on groundwater recharge
    Conjunctive use of surface and ground waters
    Groundwater possibilities in India
    Artificial recharge of groundwater
    Research findings and latest developments


Chapter 6
TECHNOLOGIES FOR RECYCLING OF WASTE WATER

    Pollution prevention in industry
    Total water management approach to recycle of waste water
    Guidelines for selection of recycle scheme
    Recycle technologies
    Effluent treatment
    Tertiary treatment
    Advanced treatment
    Biological treatment
    Clarification
    Filtration
    Adsorption
    Membrane Bio-reactor
    Ultra filtration
    Nanofiltration (NF)
    Reverse osmosis
    Photo Chemical Oxidation (PCO)
    Ion exchange process
    Conclusion


Chapter 7
RECOVERY OF WATER FROM DOMESTIC AND INDUSTRIAL WASTE WATER

    Introduction
    Water recovery and TDS management
    Management of residual saline streams
    Conclusion


Chapter 8
REVERSE OSMOSIS

    Filtration spectrum
    Membrane selection
    Pre-treatment
    Post-treatment
    Maintenance
    Energy recovery


Chapter 9
WATER/EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT IN THE FOOD PROCESSING INDUSTRIES

    Introduction
    Important consideration
    Advantages of water/effluent treatment


Chapter 10
RECOVERY OF WATER FROM NON CONVENTIONAL RESOURCES

    Background
    Need for TDS management and water recovery
    Technologies for treatment of salinity/TDS and water recovery
    Management of residual saline streams
    Observation and suggestions


Chapter 11
COOLING WATER SYSTEM MANAGEMENT

    Challenges
    Cooling tower
    Blowdown
    Factors affecting corrosion
    Test control method
    Microbiological problem
    Chemistry
    Control
    Other considerations


Chapter 12
WASTE WATER USE

    Planning of water services
    Mapping of urban streets, collection and conveyance of liquid waters
    Sewerage system
    Storm water drainage
    Onsite and end of pipe treatment plants
    Need for master planning
    Inter-linkages between roads and water related services of infrastructure
    BOT projects/public private partnership model for implementation
    Financial investment criteria with BOT implementation


Chapter 13
TECHNIQUES FOR WATER CONSERVATION IN FOOD AND BEVERAGE (F & B) INDUSTRY

    Overview of wastewater generation
    Pre-treatment of wastewater
    Controlling wastewater is highly cost effective
    Continuing to try new ideas
    Water conservation techniques
    Several opportunities in the food industry include


Chapter 14
PLASTICS CONTAINERS FOR DRINKING/POTABLE WATER AND REGULATIONS

    Introduction
    Materials and method
    Packaging materials
    Method
    Results and discussion


Chapter 15
THE GREAT THREAT OF POOR QUALITY OF COUNTERFEITING BOTTLING WATER

Chapter 16
WATER TREATMENT USING OZONE

    Introduction
    Methods of water treatment
    Advantages of OZONE over chlorine
    Ozone
    Ozone dose
    Testing for effective disinfection
    Popular ozone applications
    Economic considerations


Chapter 17
WATER CONSERVATION BY OPTIMIZING WATER USE

    Introduction
    Water conservation opportunity in industries
    Use optimization
    Water recycling
    External used water sources for cooling water system
    Internal used water sources for cooling water systems
    Scheme for selected reuse applications is presented (in flow chart)
    Some Schemes for recycling of Water in CW System
    Reuse of treated sewage for condenser cooling in power plant - a case study
    System details
    Treatment for recycling purpose
    Internal treatment
    Monitoring
    Advantages of treatment
    The treatment leads to following advantages
    Efficient treatment programme
    Water conservation


Chapter 18
NON-CONVENTIONAL TECHNIQUES TO REMOVE HEAVY METALS FROM WASTEWATER

    Introduction
    Application Of Fly Ash
    Characteristic analysis of Fly Ash
    Effects Of Carbon Content On The Adsorption of Metal Ions
    Coagulation With Sea Water Liquid Bittern
    Membrane Techniques
    Microfiltration
    Reverse Osmosis
    Ultrafiltration
    Nanofiltration
    Liquid Membranes


Chapter 19
COOLING WATER TREATMENT

    Open Cooling Tower Water Balance
    Cooling Water Associated Problems
    Corrosion : Mechanisms, Monitoring & Control
    Corrosion Mechanism
    Corrosion Inhibitors
    Scale
    Scale Control Programs
    Acid Feed
    Alkaline treatment methods
    Fouling
    Types of Fouling
    General Fouling
    Fouling by corrosion products
    Microbiological Fouling
    Process leaks
    Fouling control methods
    Side stream filtration
    Chemical control methods
    Guidelines for C.W. Treatment Selection and Application
    Instrumentation and Monitoring
    Instruments
    Critical Cooling Tower Variables
    Water treatment monitoring software


Chapter 20
ROLE OF MEMBRANE FILTRATION FOR INDUSTRIAL WATER TREATMENT AND WASTEWATER

    Reuse
    Flexographic Ink
    Metal Finishing
    Alkali Cleaner
    Chemical Mechanical Planarization
    Boiler Makeup Water
    Municipal Wastewater Treatment


Chapter 21
MEETING WATER QUALITY NEEDS THROUGH MULTIPLE TECHNOLOGIES

    Carbon Filtration
    Exhaustion
    What does this have to do with treatment trains?
    Carbon Filtration/RO Combo
    Consult the manufacturer
    Emerging Water Needs


Chapter 22
USE OF OZONE IN PACKAGED DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION AND PURIFICATION

    Introduction
    Ozone
    Packaged Drinking Water
    Ozone Treatment
    Safety Aspects
    Advantages of Ozone
    Ozone Treatment System Design


Chapter 23
HOW SAFE IS BOTTLED WATER

    Why NSF Standards


Chapter 24
OZONE – A BOON TO BOTTLERS

    Production of Bottled Water
    What is ozone?
    Properties of Ozone
    How the Ozone is made
    Why Ozone for Disinfection of Water?
    What is Pure & Impure Ozone?
    Ozone: How Safe?
    What are the major components of ozone generator?
    Feed Gas Preparation System
    Pressure and Flow Regulation
    Ozone Production System
    Process Control & Protection
    Ozone Output Indicator & Controller
    Cooling Arrangement
    Cabinet or Enclosure
    How is water ozonation carried out?
    Ozonation by diffusion method
    Inline Ventury Injection system
    Ozone injection by Recirculation method
    What should be the capacity of ozone generator in gm/hr
    Factors affecting the solubility of ozone in water
    Water Composition
    Concentration of Ozone
    Temperature of Water
    Pressure
    Method of Contact
    How The Dissolution of Ozone Is Checked in Product Water?
    Using DTP Tablets
    Using ORP Indicator
    If Ozone Can Be Used For Environmental SteriliZation In Filling Area?
    If Ozone Can Be Used For Cip (Clean In Place) In A Packaged Water Plant?
    What Care Should Be Taken While Using Ozone Generators?


Chapter 25
ADVANCES IN MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY FOR BEVERAGE WATER TREATMENT

    Introduction
    Filtration Characteristics
    System Design
    Activated Carbon
    Future


Chapter 26
APPLICATION OF MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY IN WATER PROCESSING

Chapter 27
OZONE - THE 21ST CENTURY DISINFECTANT

    Water Purification and Disinfection
    Disinfection
    Tastes and odours
    Colour
    Turbidity
    Drinking water
    High purity water systems
    Pharmaceuticals industries
    Electronics industry
    Industrial wastewater pollution control
    Odour control
    Cooling towers - water
    Swimming pools and spas
    Ozone Applications In the Food Industry
    Preservation and storage
    Germicidal effect
    Effect on odors
    Effect on metabolism
    Meat
    Cheese
    Eggs
    Beverages
    Disinfection and removal of odors
    Application for agriculture
    Air Purification Through Ozone
    Hotels and motels
    Hospitals/Nursing Homes/Clinics
    Vehicle restoration
    Fire and restoration


Chapter 28
MANUFACTURING MINERAL WATER I.E. WATER CONTAINING SUFFICIENT/
REQUIRED QUANTITY OF MINERALS WHICH IS REQUIRED TO HUMAN BODIES

    Process
    Raw Water Storage
    Multi Graded sand Filter
    Activated Carbon Filter
    Antiscalant Dosing System
    Ultraviolet Disinfection System
    Micron Filtration
    Osmotic pressure System (High Pressure Pump)
    Desalination System by Reverse Osmosis Membrane Element
    Ion Controlling System
    Storage of Treated Water
    Fine Polishing Filtration
    UV system
    Ozonization
    Rinsing Filling & Capping with Lable shrinking M/c
    Bottle Manufacturing Machine
    Reverse Osmosis Membrane Cleaning System
    Packing of mineral water in Bottles, container or polypack
    The Equipments in the project of packaged drinking water manufacturing unit
    Following are the requirement and it is managed by the purchaser


Chapter 29
PROJECT PROFILE ON PURIFIED BOTTLED WATER

    Purification of Water
    Project Brief
    Project Investment
    Manufacturing Process
    Proposed Product Mix
    The Process Flow
    Strategic Recommendations
    Market Entry Timing
    Key Success Factor
    Marketing
    Pricing
    Product Packaging
    Availability
    Suitability
    Hygiene
    Packaging
    Transportation
    Marking
    Sampling
    Scale of Sample
    Number of Test
    Criteria for Conformity
    Machinery and Equipment Requirements
    Human Resource Requirement
    Land and Building Requirements
    Recommended Mode of Land Acquisition


Chapter 30
TECHNOLOGY AND MARKET TREND OF PACKAGED DRINKING WATER

    Bottled Water Industry in India
    Bottled water top players in India
    History of Bottled water in India
    Variety of packages
    Artesian well water
    Mineral water
    Spring water
    Well water
    Tap Water
    Why Bottled water?
    Bottled Water
    How Safe?
    Water resources overexploited
    Bottled water companies earn high profits
    Plastic Bottles Pollution
    Plastic Bottles requires costly Oil
    The anti-bottling protests
    Pro-tap water consciousness
    Bottled Water law in India
    Health Issue-Purity of bottled water
    Traditional Indian methods of cooling and purifying water
    Rainwater is safe, doesn't bring about adverse effects
    Manufacturing Process
    Filtration
    Desalination
    Reverse Osmosis
    Nanofiltration (NF)
    Ultrafiltration (UF)
    Microfiltration (MF)
    Ultra Violet Unit (UV)
    Recommended maximum concentration levels in Ultra Violet unit
    Ozonation through Ozonator
    What is Ozone?
    Ozone Production
    Rinsing, Filling and Capping Machinery
    Bottle Blowing stations
    Coding and Packing Machines
    Water Treatment Plant
    Laboratory for Water Testing
    RO water Purification Plant


Chapter 31
MINERAL WATER PLANT/ PACKAGED DRINKING WATER PLANT
WITH ISI LAB AND CERTIFICATION

    Mineral Water Plant/ Packaged Drinking Water Plant
    Features
    The Water Treatment
    Plant consists of One or All of the below mentioned process
    Water Storage Tank
    Multi Grade Sand Filter
    Activated Carbon Filter
    Antiscalant Dosing System
    Micron Filters
    Reverse Osmosis System
    Ultra Violet Sterilizer
    Ozone Generator
    Mineral water plant isi consultancy and laboratory setup


Chapter 32
MINERAL WATER PLANT

    Introduction
    Capacity
    Process Flow
    Machines/Equipment Offered
    Purification Section
    Bottle Manufacturing Section
    Bottling Section


Chapter 33
PROJECT PROFILE ON MINERAL WATER

    Product Description and Application
    Pricing and Distribution
    Plant Capacity and Production Programme
    Plant Capacity
    Production Programme
    Materials and Inputs
    Raw Materials
    Utilities
    Technology and Engineering Technology
    Production Process
    Engineering
    Machinery and Equipment
    Land, Buildings and Civil Works
    Manpower
    Requirement
    Total Initial Investment Cost


Chapter 34
THE USE OF DISTILLATION TECHNOLOGY IN THE BOTTLED WATER INDUSTRY

    A matter of dollars and cents
    Two types of systems
    Part of customer awareness
    Conclusion
    FYI: Vapor Compression Technology

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