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CODE NO. 5125

Citric  acid  was  first  isolated  from  lemon  juice   and crystallised  as  a  solid by Scheele in 1784.   It  is  found  as natural constituent of citrus fruits, pine apples, peaches,  figs and  other  fruits and tissues.  The citric acid  extracted  from these products is known as a"natural citric acid" in contrast  to "fermentation citric acid" lemons, limes and pine apples are  the principle  sources  of  natural citric acid,  which  is  produced chiefly  in  Italy, especially Sicily, and  also  in  California, Hawai and the West Indies.

It has made the United States self sufficient in respect to the citric acid supply and greatly changes the commerce of the world in citric acid and calcium citrate.

Recent developments in the citric acid fermentation include the change from the older established shallow   pan method to a deep tank submerged method. 

A  group  headed  by S.M. Martin of  the  National  Research laboratory   of  Canada  has  been  especially  active   in   the development  of  the  submerged production of  citric  acid  from ferrocyanide-treated beet molasses by Aspergillus Niger.

In  Russia, Imshenetskiietal through the use of  ultraviolet radiation, obtained an A. Niger mutant that produced 16-22%  more citric  acid  than  parent strain, which is  used  in  Commercial production  of this product.   The mutant strain produced  25-30% less  mycellium  than  the parents yet it  consumed  26-51%  more sucrose per gram of dry mycellium.  The yield of citric acid from the sugar consumed varied form 57-74%.


Plant capacity                            10.00 TONS/day
Land & Building (2.50 Acres)        Rs. 3.82  Cr
Plant & Machinery                       Rs. 6.9   Cr
W.C. for 1 Month                         Rs. 1.70  Cr
Total Capital Investment               Rs. 12.70 Cr
Rate of Return                            29%
Break Even Point                        60%


•            Introduction
•            Properties
•            BIS (Bureau of Indian Standard) Specifications & Requirements
•            Uses & Applications
•            Present Indian Market Position
•            Expected Future Demand
•            Export & Import Statistics Data
•            Names and Addresses of Existing Units (Present Manufactures)
•            List of Plant & Machineries
•            Miscellaneous Items and Accessories
•            Instruments, Laboratory Equipments and Accessories
•            Electrification, Electric Load and Water
•            Maintenance, Suppliers/Manufacturers of Plant and Machineries
•            Process of Manufacture with formulae if applicable
•            Flow Sheet Diagram
•            List of Raw Materials
•            Availability of Raw Materials
•            Requirement of Staff & Labour
•            Personnel Management
•            Skilled & Unskilled Labour
•            Requirement of Land Area
•            Built up Area
•            Plant Layout.
along with financial details as under:
Summary of Capital Cost of Project
Land & Side Development Exp.
Plant & Machineries
Misc. Fixed Assets
Technical Know how Fees & Exp.
Preliminary Expenses
Pre-operative Expenses
Provision for Contingencies
below mentioned financial statements (Annexure) will be  for 5 to 10 Years
  Annexure  ::         Cost of Project and Means of Finance
  Annexure  ::         Output, Profitability and Cash Flow Chart
  Annexure  ::         Assessment of Working Capital requirements
  Annexure  ::         Sources of Finance
  Annexure  ::         Balance Sheets
  Annexure  ::         Break-Even Analysis and profitability analysis.
  Annexure  ::         Quantitative Details-Output/Sales/Stocks
  Annexure  ::         Sales Realisation       
  Annexure  ::         Raw Material Cost      
  Annexure  ::         Other Raw Material Cost            
  Annexure  ::         Packing Material Cost        
  Annexure  ::         Consumables, Store etc.,                   
  Annexure  ::         Employees Expenses           
  Annexure  ::         Fuel Expenses                
  Annexure  ::         Power/Electricity Expenses   
  Annexure  ::         Repairs & Maintenance Exp.   
  Annexure  ::         Other Mfg. Expenses          
  Annexure  ::         Administration Expenses      
  Annexure  ::         Selling Expenses             
  Annexure  ::         Depreciation Charges - Profitability
  Annexure  ::         Depreciation Charges
  Annexure  ::         Interest and Repayment - Term Loans
  Annexure  ::         Tax on Profit
  Annexure  ::         Assumptions for Profitability workings
  Annexure  ::         Assessment of Working Capital

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